Tuesday, 22 May 2018

What's a Language and What's a Dialect? A Chinese Example and a Whole Lot More.

In the Central Asian nations of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, there exists a population of Chinese Muslim descent who have lived there for up to 150 years.  They are called the Dungans, and they speak a language called… well, Dungan.

Yet should Dungan be considered a seperate language, or just a dialect of Chinese?  You see, a speaker of Mandarin from Beijing can understand Dungan, but would never be able to understand Cantonese or Shanghainese.  

Yet, Cantonese is considered a mere dialect of Chinese, whereas Dungan is considered a separate language.  So, why is that?  And to ask the obvious question, how did this community of Chinese descent end up in Central Asia in the first place?

Some History
It’s the year 1862, and Imperial China, ruled by the Qing Dynasty, is facing apocalyptic levels of violence.  The Taiping rebellion (1850-1864) , a civil war possibly deadlier than even World War Two, is not yet over, when an entirely separate civil war breaks out in the north western provinces of the country. 

This new rebellion (1862-1877) has been given many names, such as the Dungan Revolt, the Tonzhi Hui revolt and the Hui (Muslim) Minorities War and is widely believed to have been, in itself, the 7th deadliest war man has fought in the post-medieval era. 

While historians have differed on what to call it, what they do mostly agree on is that this war started off as a pricing dispute between two merchants but became a separatist war by Chinese Muslims based in the Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces of North-Western China. 

Here in China, Muslims mainly belong to two main ethnic groups.  The most well known are the Turkic Uyghurs, who are the people of Xinjiang, (previously known as Chinese Turkestan) and are, if you like, China’s equivalent of Catalonia or the Basque Country, since they have their own language, their own historically defined territory, and their own separatist movement.

However, the other group, whom this blog article is about, are the Hui people, who are primarily descended from both Han Chinese converts to Islam, and from Silk Road Traders who arrived in China from the Muslim World.

Being largely of Han Chinese descent, the Hui people, unlike China’s other minorities, traditionally spoke Mandarin rather than any non-Sinitic language, and like the Han themselves, can be found across China rather than having their own historic Homeland.  However, due to North West China being closest to the Silk Road and the influence of Islam generally, it is there, in the provinces of Ningxia and Gansu, that the Hui are most prominent.

And it was there, in the 1860s and 70s, that the local Hui staged their rebellion and appear to have attempted to establish a separate Chinese Muslim state in the region.

Unfortunately for the rebels, they were defeated by the central government, and the reprisals were harsh – rebel leaders were executed, and their corpses were burnt, and their associates and relatives were castrated.

And that's not to mention the fact that population of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces fell by some 20 million, due to both death from the conflict itself, the subsequent famine, and due to Hui refugees fleeing the area.  

 But it’s those refugees that I want to talk about, since they were the people who upped sticks and moved across the border into then Russian controlled Central Asia, with a further group of Hui moving over in the 1880s. 

These groups thus created their own communities in what are now the ‘-Stan’ countries of Central Asia, and continued to speak their native dialects of Mandarin down the generation, but adopting the Cyrillic script and a number of loan words from Russian, Arabic, and the languages of Central Asia.  

And that is how the Dungan people and their seperate language were born, and overall, the Dungan people today number around 110,000. 

So why is Dungan considered a separate language?
Well, the separate writing system, is in my opinion, the killer factor - after all, Serbian and Croatian are almost the same language, but with the separate alphabets being what decides them apart.  

The fact that Dungan uses Cyrillic and not Chinese Characters means that whereas a Cantonese and a Mandarin speaker can communicate by writing but not by speaking, with a Dungan speaker and a Mandarin speaker, it is precisely the other way round - it seems that the inability able to communicate through writing is more important than the inability to communicate using the spoken word when deciding what is and what isn't a separate language.

But then of course there is the importance of ethnic identity.  Certainly the Dungans are registered as a separate ethnic group from modern day Chinese nationals living in the Central Asian countries however among themselves, the Dungans apparently consider themselves at one with the Hui in China, after a century and a half of separation.

Either way, Dugan is an interesting example of what’s a language and what’s a dialect.

The Dungans Today
Although the Dungans have developed their own identity outside of China, they still consider themselves people Hui people at heart and in no way have lost contact with their brothers back in China.

Under the Soviet Union, the Dungan people were much more successful at maintaining their heritage than other ethnic groups than other ethnic groups in Central Asia, with 94% of Dungans speaking Dungan as their first language in 1989.   However, this has changed since the fall of the Soviet Union, and Census figures show that by 2001 that figure was around 40%. 

The Hui People in China Today
As for the Dungans’ cousins back home, the Hui people in China today are doing rather well.  As an ethnic minority, the Hui were exempt from the one child policy, and their population is now more than 10 million.

Although, as discussed, Hui people can be from anywhere in China, Ningxia, where some 20% of Hui people live, was declared an autonomous region for the Hui people in 1958.  There, the Hui form 38% of the resident population, with Han Chinese making up 62%. 

Famous Hui communities outside of Ningxia include that of Xian, with its 15th Century Great Mosque, while in Nanjing I am very happy that I happen to live right next to a Hui restaurant, and within close walking distance of another.

Map showing the location of theNingxia Hui Autonomous Region
The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region today, located in red. 
Ningxia  and neighboring Gansu (bordering it to the south west)
were centers of the Great Hui Revolt of the 1860s and 70s. 

Sunday, 6 May 2018

Punishing Welsh-Speakers for Speaking Good English

Before I moved to Wales, back in 2014, I was once told that on no account should I, or other incomers to Wales, waste their time learning Welsh, because even if we were to meet Welsh-Speakers, it would be useless since ‘everyone can speak English.’ 

That everyone speaks English is of course true, but it was no deterrence to me I, and when Welsh Duolinguo came out about two years later, I started at it the very next day, and haven’t looked back.
My view, of course, was contrary to the one I had encountered back in 2014 – I believe that when in Rome you should do as the Romans. 

But let’s take that argument, for one moment, that which says that Welsh is useless because everyone speaks English.   Well, what it’s saying seems to be this: 

‘Thank you, Welsh-Speakers, for learning our language, English.  We are very grateful for that, and so your reward from us is that we’re not going to bother to learn a word of your language when we choose to come and live amongst you and if it makes the future of your language, culture and very identity less safe, then so be it.  If it makes you feel like you’re the foreigner in your own country, then so be it.’

Not much of a reward is it? Unfortunately though, this attitude is all too common - and what is the result of this?

Well, in many of the Welsh-Speaking communities that are still left, you have shops and restaurants where English-speaking incomer staff haven’t learnt a word of Welsh, meaning that the locals have to use their second language in order to survive in their own country, as if the locals were the foreigners, and not the incomers themselves!

In London, my local baker happened to be Romanian, but that did not mean that I had to speak Romanian if I wanted to buy something from her!

But, of course, the much bigger result of English-Speaking incomers not being assimilated by the locals in the Fro Gymraeg has been the disappearance of most of the Fro Gymraeg altogether! 

Not only has the non-assimilation of incomers led to the collapse of the Welsh Language, it has also, quite understandably, resulted in segregation, parallel communities, and social tensions. 

The 1989 A Study of Language Contact And Social Networks in Ynys Môn, by Delyth Morris, proved exactly this, which looked specifically at the village of Bryngwran, on Anglesey.  If there’s one corner of the British Isles where multiculturalism has failed, it’s with the non-assimilation of English-speaking incomers in the Fro Gymraeg. 

All this is not a reward – it’s a punishment – punishment for speaking somebody else’s language so well. 

And Welsh-speakers did not suffer this fate when they were still majority monoglot.  Indeed, when you had English-speaking incomers moving to majority Welsh monoglot communities in the 19th and early 20th centuries, like Bethesda in 1911, the newcomers duly learned Welsh and were assimilated without any problems.

But, of course, in the 21st century, it’s not just the Welsh who speak good English.  It’s the Germans, the Dutch, the Scandinavians, the South Koreans - you get the picture.  Now, this in itself is no bad thing, and I myself am an English teacher here in China.

But what is outrageous is that, like the Welsh, these countries are increasingly being punished for being good at English, as English-speakers who go and live in those countries feel increasingly tempted to take advantage of the locals' prowess in English and not bother learning the local language.
In Berlin, you now have bars staffed by English-speakers who don’t speak a word of German, something which has quite rightly caused outrage, while in Iceland, another article from the guardian, remarked that “in the bars, restaurants and shops of downtown Reykjavik, it can be a struggle for locals to get served in their native language.

Again, this was not something that happened in these countries before the locals learned good English, and thus in cities like Berlin, Amsterdam and Reykjavik, like in the Fro Gymraeg, the locals are being punished, being made to feel like foreigners on their own home turf, merely  because they are good at somebody else's language - they are being punished for being well educated.

That is something that I find plain wrong, and is why I felt compelled to learn Welsh when in Wales, and Chinese before I came to China, and why I have always felt compelled to learn the local language wherever I plan to move to.  
I also thus feel that there needs to be a fundamental change in attitude among English-Speakers who move abroad.  That was something I felt in 2014, and its something I feel even more now. 

Maybe you agree with me, maybe you don't, but either way, feel free to subscribe to my Facebook Page at https://www.facebook.com/PoliticsByRebuttal/ for more content.

Wednesday, 2 May 2018

The Rise of China is a Wonderful Thing

As an Englishman living in Nanjing, it was a week ago that I traveled to the Memorial To The Victims Of The Nanjing Massacre By Japanese Invaders, commemorating an event in which an estimated 300,000 of the cities inhabitants were murdered by the Japanese in December 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War. 

The Sino-Japanese War was nothing more than a war of one-sided murderous aggression by the Empire of Japan against China – Japan wanted to have more of China for itself, while China wasn't trying to invade Japan. 

During that war, and most famously during the massacre in Nanjing, Japanese forces would often murder any civilians within sight – adults, the elderly, children and babies.  They would also knock on doors, then immediately murder the person who answered the door, and then proceed with murdering their way through the whole household. 

About a week or so before I visited the memorial, I watched two survivor’s testimonies on youtube, and it was the first time in god knows how long that I needed to wipe a tissue below my eyes – the Nanjing Massacre was among the worst war crimes of the 20th Century. 

The period of Chinese history during the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries were not a good time for the country at all – China was increasingly carved up into spheres of influence by outside aggressors, starting with the Opium Wars in which Britain, trying to turn the Chinese Nation into Opium drug addicts to fill their own pockets, used gun boat diplomacy when the Qing government objected. 
A French Political Cartoon from the height of
Imperialism, when the Japanese and European
Aggressors regarded China as a cake to share 
among themselves regardless of whether the Chin-
ese wanted this or not.                                             

During the century after that point, both the European and Japanese aggressors viewed China as a cake for themselves to feast on, a treasure chest for them to loot, and the aggressor nations viewed the Chinese as an inferior people, just as they viewed all of their captive peoples across the world.  

This is a tad ironic given that the Chinese had invented so much, and had been building grand temples, cities and palaces when we Europeans were living in the dark ages, but I digress.
A Liberal Party Election Poster from the
British General Election of 1906,  criticizing
their Tory opponents for allowing Chinese
people to move to South Africa, arguing that
SA should be for white Brits to move to instead.

Back to the Point
A century ago, China was a country that was treated as inferior and as fair game by the imperialist powers, both European and Japanese.  Likewise, the USA had banned Chinese immigration to their country – they only wanted whites.

Even though the days of Japanese and Western colonialism are long gone, for many decades afterwards, it was pretty much only the West and Japan that were the industrialized and developed nations. 

Then, they were joined by the Four Asian Tigers (including Taiwan, the Republic of China) and now by Mainland China, the People’s Republic of China. 

So when I look around me in 21st Century China, I just feel so thrilled that a country that was in such a bad way a century ago is now excelling to such a degree, and without having to steal from other countries in the form of colonies or overseas coups.  And that is the way that we in the west should view China’s rise, regardless of our many political and ideological differences.

I also hope that other countries that fell victim to colonialist aggression will likewise follow China's lead, and end the economic divide between the formerly colonised and the former colonisers.

Tuesday, 24 April 2018

Why do So Many People Want to Abolish the Welsh Assembly?

Whilst I was on Wales Online's Facebook Page and reading the comments on the article The Likely Contenders to the Wales's Next First Minister, the first thing that I noticed flying in my face was the sheer number of people calling for the Welsh Assembly to be scrapped.

For example, out of the first ten that appeared, some four were calling for the devolved legislature to be scrapped, including the top two screenshot on the right.

In March 2014, some 23% of respondents in a BBC Wales poll called for the institution to be scrapped, while in the Assembly elections of 2014, 4.4% of voters chose to cast their ballots for the Abolish the Welsh Assembly Party.  

So the obvious question is why - why do so many people in Wales want to abolish Wales's own government? 

Trying to Explain the Unexplainable
Let's be clear, these people are not anarchists - they're not calling for the Welsh Assembly to be abolished because they want all government to be abolished, on the contrary, none of them seems to want to abolish Westminster - it seems to be only the Welsh Assembly that they have it in for.  

Which is odd isn't it? Because one of their main arguments every time, is that the Welsh Assembly is a waste of money.  But is it?

In August last year, there was controversy over the fact that the Welsh Assembly needed a £1.8 million refurbishment programme.  Yet, in January this year, it was announced that in Westminster, the British Houses of Parliament needed £3.5bn for restoration!  Which is more... do the maths.

The Welsh Assembly is also very cheap to run in terms of staffing costs for the simple reason that it only has 60 members.  Yes, 60.  Compare that to Westminster, which as 1435 members, of whom nearly 800 are unelected.

Yes, not only is the Welsh Assembly so much cheaper than Westminster, it is also much more democratic, with it's proportional representation and lack of hereditary and appointed peers.  Yet still, it's the Welsh Assembly, not Westminster, that those people want to be scrapped.

And then they will argue that the Welsh Assembly has run Wales badly ever since it's creation in 1999.  And yes, that may be true, but nobody in England has ever said that Westminster should be abolished whenever it cocks up.  

Likewise, you don't have Germans calling for the abolition of the Bundestag whenever they don't like Merkel, do you?  Wanting to actually abolish your country's system of government is just not the normal thing to do when you merely disagree with the party that happens to be in power.

The Real Reason
Now, I don't claim the know every single one of those people who want to abolish the Welsh Assembly, most of them, of course, I have not met personally.

But for those who I have met, or have come across either on line or on Television, I can say this.  They all seemed to have several things in common:
  • They were against promoting the Welsh Language and believed that the Welsh Language, along with Devolution were the two reasons behind all of Wales ills
  • They hated anything that made Wales too culturally different from England and seemed to have a naturally condescending view of the country and its potential.
  • They had the tendency to think that Welsh Nationalism was uniquely evil.
Make no mistake - those people were against the Welsh Assembly not because they were anti-government, but rather because they were anti-Welshness.

This is despite the fact that many of them are people who have chosen to live in Wales.

That all pretty much sums up Jacques Protiques, and his Glasnost UK, pretty well, and it certainly sums up pretty much every other Assembly-Abolitionist that I've ever met.  

Now I don't know to what extent this is also true of the Abolish the Welsh Assembly Party, but they certainly seem to be only keen on abolishing the Welsh Assembly and not the British Parliament, for example.

Saturday, 7 April 2018

Why not Rename the Bridge after Dafydd ap Gwilym?

So, the Westminster Government, with the permission of her Majesty the Queen, have chosen to rename the Severn Bridge, linking Wales and England, after the Prince Charles, by naming it the ‘Prince of Wales Bridge.’ 

This decision is not one I see as a stand-alone decision, but rather as part of a trend of naming landmark after landmark in Wales after the Prince of Wales.  It was only two years back that the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff was renamed Principality Stadium. 

Now, in an article in Nation Cymru, I, Abraham, argued that Plaid Cymru should be less republican, and more like the SNP.  But the renaming of landmark after landmark in Wales after Wales’s Principality status, particularly when, this time, the Welsh people have not been asked, is something I oppose as much as any Republican does. 

This is no doubt an act that is designed to be provocative.  Alun Cairns himself admitted that he knew Welsh Republicans would not like it, and I believe he sees it as a win-win situation where he can anger the Welsh Nationalists up the wall and hope that latter in turn alienate the electorate through their angry republicanism. 

How Plaid Cymru responds is absolutely critical.  The argument they should be making is that Wales’s landmarks should be used to commemorate the people that Wales produced – and that the people of Wales should decide, in a poll, perhaps. 

And there are a great number of famous Welsh people to choose from – David Lloyd George, Owain Glyndwr, Dic Penderyn, Iolo Morgannwg, Llywelyn Fawr, and many more. 

But I would choose Dafydd ap Gwilym, and here’s why.  Dafydd ap Gwilym was perhaps one of Europe’s greatest poets in the fourteenth century – some of his most notable works include Merched Llanbadarn,   Trafferth mewn tafarn and Cywydd Y Gal, among many others, although the last one mentioned is considered very naughty.

He is arguably the Chaucer, if not the Shakespeare, of Welsh literature.  Yet unlike those two men, how many Europeans today will have even heard of him?  How many Welshmen even will have heard of him?  Not very many. 

I once read an anti-Welsh Language article by a Monmouthshire man, who seemed to believe that Welsh did not even have any historic literature at all – and I am sure many people in Wales, if not the majority, have that idea.

Chaucer and Shakespeare however, are names that are known throughout the world.  The only reason why Dafydd ap Gwilym isn’t a tenth of a hundredth as widely known as Shakespeare, even in Wales itself it seems, is not because Dafydd ap Gwilym was a bad poet – far from it – but because his language was not one that would be spread and glorified by Empire – but rather one that fell victim to it. 

Naming Wales’s greatest entry point after one of Wales’s greatest writers wouldn’t make Dafydd as widely known as Shakespeare on the global stage – but at least it will make his name more widely known amongst his own countrymen. 

It would also be sufficiently apolitical, and so could unite both nationalists and unionists, although the anti-Welsh Language brigade would probably scream and shout – and that, of course, would be no bad thing.    

Thursday, 5 April 2018

Mae’r Iaith Gymraeg yn dda I Loegr hefyd

Os dych chi’n edrych ar map y byd, wnewch chi weld fod y gwledydd Eingl-Sacsonaidd yn sefyllfa tipyn rhyfedd.  Er bod y mwyafrif gwledydd yn y byd gorllewin, ac yn Ewrop yn enwedig, rhannu gororau efo gwledydd eraill a iethioedd eraill, dydy hwn ddim yn wir am y gwledydd eingl-sacsonaidd. 

O’r gwledydd hwnna ei gyd, dim ond yr Unol Daleithiau America sy’n rhannu gororau efo gwledydd ieithoedd estronol – efo Mecsico yn y de a Canada Quebec yn y gog – a dydy’r berthynas rhwng America a Mecsico ddym yn gydraddol iawn fel y berthynas rhwng Ffrainc a’r Almaen. 

Ar y llaw arall, mae pob wladd yn tir mawr Ewrop yn rhannu goror efo gwlad iaith estronol – Ffrainc efo’r Almaen, Spaen efo’r Portiwgal a mae lot o siampl eraill.
Fel Sais fy hun, rwy i’n teimlo bod ein ynysu daearyddol iaithol wedi cael effaith arnon ni, ar agwedd ni ag ar ein weld ar y gweddill y byd, a hefyd ar ein agwedd am yr iethiodd estronol – dydy’r y mwafrif arnon ni ddim yn licio dysgu! 

Mae’r effaithiau gwleiddydol yn bob man dw i’n meddwl, ond mae hyn yn gryfach ar y de gwyleiddol – Brexit sydd canlyniadau o hyn. 

Yn fyr, mae’r diffyg o gororau tir efo gwleiddydd iethioedd estronol wedi rendro ni yn fwy ynysig ag ar wahan I’r ieithoedd a ddiwylliannau eraill a mae hwnna mor drist.

Pam ydy Canada yr wlad y fwya flaengar ohonon ni?  Rw i’n meddwl bod yr ddwyieithrwydd yn ateb y kestiwn hwnna.  Felly, dw i’n meddwl bod hi mor drist fod iaith gymraeg wedi cael ei syrthio – nid i Gymru yn unig, ond i Loegr hefyd. 

Monday, 2 April 2018

Why aren’t there Three Languages in Wales?

Below are three verses from a poem, probably written in the 18th century.  What language do you think it is? How much of it can you understand?

Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid; mot thee fartoo, an fade;
Ha deight ouse var gabble, tell ee zin go t'glade.
Ch'am a stouk, an a donel; wou'll leigh out ee dey.
Th' valler w'speen here, th' lass ee chourch-hey.
Yerstey w'had a baree, gist ing oor hoane,
Aar gentrize ware bibbern, aamzil cou no stoane.
Yith Muzleare had ba hole, t'was mee Tommeen,
At by mizluck was ee-pit t'drive in.
Joud an moud vrem earchee ete was ee Lough.
Zitch vaperreen, an shimmereen, fan ee-daf ee aar scoth!
Zitch blakeen, an blayeen, fan ee ball was ee-drowe!
Chote well aar aim was t'yie ouz n'eer a blowe.

Now I don't know about you, but I would guess that you struggled quite a bit with that.  

Okay, Spoiler alert:  What you have just seen is a language called Yola, an offshoot of Middle English, spoken by the Yoles, an ethnic group who lived in a remote corner of County Wexford, Ireland.  This language was something they managed to hold on to down the centuries until into their eventual assimilation in the 19th century.   The other name for their language was 'Forth and Bargy', after the two adjacent baronies in which they lived. 

The two baronies of Forth and Bargy, in County
Wexford, Ireland, where the Yoles lived and spoke
their ancient offshoot of 12th Century English.
But who just who were the Yoles? To answer that question, you have to go back to 1169 and the Norman Invasion of Ireland.  In short, the Yoles were the descendants of English peasants brought over by their Norman lords to work their newly conquered land on the Emerald Isle. 

It was by no means only County Wexford that was affected by this forgotten 12th century plantation of Ireland.  In many of their newly acquired fiefdoms, Norman lords brought over their own peasants and merchants too, and settler communities of English, Welsh, Flemish and French descent sprang up in Ireland. 

Although, most of these settlers, and even their lords, were assimilated by the Gaelic Irish over the next few centuries, in at least two places, these old enclaves survived – one being at Fingal in County Dublin, and the other being our friends, the Yoles of County Wexford.

In both places, separation from mainstream English back in England is what made the local dialects evolve down such unique paths until they became de facto seperate languages in their own right.

So what about Wales?
Map of Wales from around the 12th century.
Areas ruled by the Marcher Lords are in orange while
areas ruled by the native Welsh Princes are in green.
Wales, just like Ireland, was invaded by the Normans – in Wales's case starting almost as soon as 1066 itself.  The invaders were a group of Norman Barons known as the Marcher Lords and this first invasion was them acting totally 'free-lance' - the King of England had little or nothing to do with these first invasions, as I understand it.

On the contrary, the Marcher Lords were acting purely for personal gain - they each wanted to create new territories for themselves where they, (and not the King of England) could each be their own boss.
Like in Ireland, the new invaders brought over peasants with them, mostly Flemish and English settlers, and the result was that scattered along the South Wales coast, permanent enclaves of English ethnicity and language were created, which survived down the centuries.  

On the right is a language map of Wales from around 1810, and as you can see, there were 'bubbles' of English that existed along the South Coast - in Southern Pembrokeshire, the Gower, and in the Vale of Glamorgan.  

These 'Englisheries' were there because they dated back to Norman times.  

An Interesting Side Note
What is worth noting is that when, 200 years after the first Norman Invasions, Edward I launched his much more famous conquest of North and West Wales, very little changed in terms of language borders.  

Although Edward I did bring English settlers over to Wales, unlike with the Norman barons two centuries earlier, these colonists were almost exclusively urban - they settled in the new English-built castle-towns, and not in the countryside.  That is significant.

Although these new settlements began their lives as English-speaking enclaves, events such as the Black Death, which disproportionately affected towns and cities, ravaged their Anglophone populations, and the subsequent resettlement of them by the native Welsh made them solidly Welsh-speaking again.  

The town of Caernarfon is perhaps the greatest example of this - the town and its castle were founded to be the centre of English power in Wales and began its life as an enclave of English ethnicity and language par excellence, and yet today it is the most Welsh-speaking town in 21st century Wales.

So although the Edwardian Conquest is seen by Welsh Nationalists as the ultimate disaster in Welsh history, with myths of King Edward slaughtering the bards (something which has inspired poetry as far away as Hungary,)  I would argue that it was the first of the two invasions which did far much damage to the Welsh Language. 

 But I Digress
So the question that I pose is this - Why didn't the English spoken in it's medieval enclaves in South Wales diverge into something separate, as did Yola and Fingallian in Ireland?

Because, as far as I know, Pembrokeshire English and Gower English is pretty much the same as English as in England, with the exception of the accent, of course, although I may be wrong?

So the title of this blog perhaps shouldn't be 'Why aren't there Three Languages in Wales?' but Why aren't there four or five - one for each South Wales enclave?

Just imagine it - a separate Germanic Language called 'Pembroke-ish' or 'Gowerish.'